It’s just a matter of time before the 1.5 million people living in Gaza have no clean water to drink, Gideon Bromberg, Israeli director of EcoPeace-Friends of the Earth Middle East, told RT.
RT: You’re saying there must be a new
agreement to replace the Oslo Accords between Israeli and the
Palestinians when it comes to water. Why is the old system not
working, in your view?
Gideon Bromberg: The situation on the ground
speaks for itself. The Oslo Accords were signed 20 years ago as
an interim agreement that was supposed to be replaced after five
years. Perhaps like no other issue of the final status, water
simply cannot wait. The population has increased, in fact the
Palestinian population has almost doubled in these last 20 years.
Palestinians are not getting enough water to meet their basic
needs and the treatment of sewage has not progressed. So we are
seeing a lot more pollution of shared Israeli-Palestinian water.
It is really a lose- lose situation at the moment, where both
sides are failing to meet their urgent needs – water and
pollution prevention – by sticking to the agreement that was
supposed to be replaced [years ago].
RT: Israel produces enough water on its own
territory. Why do they need to produce water from the disputed
territories? Surely that only antagonizes the situation?
GB: The current situation is that Israel enjoys
the benefit of the lion’s share of the shared water. Israel
enjoys the benefits of some 80 percent of shared waters between
the Israelis and Palestinians, and that situation is not fair, as
it leaves Palestinians with insufficient amounts of water. It
means that on every roof throughout the West Bank you have a
water cistern that is storing water when water is made available
for the municipality, and water is not made available for the
municipality in Palestinian towns and cities on the daily basis.
In fact, as we approach the summer in areas like Bethlehem,
Hebron they will be getting water once every two or three weeks,
sometimes even once a month. That’s a completely different
reality within Israel, where water is available 24/7.
This current situation is due to sticking to the interim accord.
Friends of the Earth Middle East are really leading the effort
saying that the notion that we won’t agree on anything – until we
agree on everything – is really holding water and the environment
as a hostage to the failure of the other issues. And that’s to
the detriment of the Palestinian population, plus also to the
detriment of the Israeli population because the same type of the
unworkable system that is in place on water supply, is also in
place on the issue of sanitation. You have a lot of agreements
that need to be come to, on every sewage treatment plant you have
a second level of approval required when it comes to the
agreement of the civil administration, at least to enormous
delay, also delay in the building of sewage plants for
Palestinian cities. The result will be that more raw sewage flows
mostly downhill to Israel from the Palestinian populations.
It is really a lose-lose, we are really shooting the interests of
the both sides in the foot by not moving forward on water. When
water is indeed an issue, that is completely solvable today, much
due to the Israel’s leadership and desalination and treating
waste water on its side so that the pie has increased
dramatically. Yet we are stuck with an agreement and neither side
is willing to move forward on the agreement on water, first in
fear that on the Israeli side there is an idea, “What are we
going to get in exchange?”, and on the Palestinian side the
idea is, “If we come to an agreement on water, then it will
give legitimacy to the Israeli side and unless we have an
agreement on all issues we don’t want legitimacy.” Really,
water environment is being held hostage to the detriment of the
public of both sides.
RT: How much of a hold does this water issue
give Israel over the Palestinians?
GB: Israel has full domination. It’s like having
a single bath tub and two straws drinking from it. One side, the
Israeli side, can draw from that straw as much water as it wants
but from the Palestinian straw there must be Israeli and
Palestinian agreement for every cubic meter, for every water
project to be advanced.
In fact Israel has veto power and if we were to move forward on a
new agreement, if we put on the table what a new agreement could
look like, Palestinians would have far more independence to
extract their rightful share of water resources, but it also has
the responsibility to protect the shared water body itself,
something that is not being achieved for the moment.
Moving forward to a new agreement presents the opportunity of the
relatively low-hanging fruit on one of the five final status
issues that really can bring a tremendous gain to both sides. To
the Palestinian president, moving forward on a new water
agreement can really change the reality felt by every Palestinian
at home because it can mean more water in every single
Palestinian house. On the Israeli side it can mean removing
sewage that currently pollutes streams that flow to every major
city, be it Tel-Aviv, Haifa, Persheva – Palestinian sewage that
flows into Israeli cities.
The failure to move forward is very much related to the mindset
that is “Well, we must agree on all issues – Jerusalem,
settlements, borders – or we agree on no issues.” And
therefore, for 20 years we have agreed on nothing. What we are
coming and saying is that we can move forward on a final
agreement on water that will say water and environment issues
resolved in a just manner that can help us create confidence to
move forward on the other final status issue. It is not instead
of moving forward on the other, but very much to correct that
confidence that we can come to agreement on one of the final
status issues on the effort to agree on all of the final status
RT: How serious is the current situation in
GB: The situation is serious and it is going to
become even more serious, particularly with Gaza drinking water,
which is particularly saline and will become even more saline.
Palestinians in Gaza are extracting three times the quantity of
the renewable rights of fresh water in the Gaza strip, so every
year that water is becoming less and less drinkable, and it is
really a matter of time before the population in Gaza will not
have clean water to drink. That is one and a half million people
that risk no longer having water to drink. I don’t see any
border, any security fence or any military holding back one and a
half million thirsty people. I hope we do not get to this
situation, and therefore, our efforts are very much focused on
advocating, educating the Israeli leadership, the Palestinian
leadership, the international community that water [issue] must
be solved today because if we don’t solve it today, if we won’t
put that infrastructure in place today, then we are really in
line for a dire crisis situation that I would hate to see what
consequences it can lead to.
RT: What kind of solution can you
GB: With climate change and an increase in
precipitation and longer periods of drought, governments need to
see water not only as a natural resource issue but as a security
issue of national security, but also of international
trans-boundary security when the resource of water is actually
shared between different countries. So foreign ministries across
the globe need to take much greater heat and attention to the
trans-boundary nature of shared water resources. We have very
much brought this issue to the attention of the Obama
administration and the Secretary of State, John Kerry. Again, we
turn to the American administration while we understand that the
situation of negotiations is currently on pause. Water will
simply not wait, and no one can afford to allow what is truly an
explosive situation to transform, to continue to develop. Water
cannot wait, we need and we can. The beauty of the water issue at
least here, on the Mediterranean coast, where we have a large
resource of seawater, we can relatively cheaply desalinate
Mediterranean seawater to augment supplies, but that can’t take
place without an agreement, without firstly a fair sharing of
natural waters, and then it can be supplemented with
desalination. So there doesn’t need to be a situation of
“water wars.” We can manage our water resources far more
sustainably, far more sensibly. Water can indeed, particularly in
the Middle East, where it is a scarce resource, be that
low-hanging fruit that can help us move forward to build
confidence, to advance the peace process as a whole.
The statements, views and opinions expressed in this column are solely those of the author and do not necessarily represent those of RT.